This ShakeMap 3.5 Manual is deprecated. Please see the ShakeMap 4 Manual.
8. References & Bibliography¶
Abrahamson, N.A. and W.J. Silva (2008). Summary of the Abrahamson & Silva NGA ground motion relations, Earthquake Spectra 24, 67-97.
Abrahamson, N., G. Atkinson, D. Boore, Y. Bozorgnia, K. Campbell, B. Chiou, B., I.M. Idriss, W. Silva, and R. Youngs (2008). Comparisons of the NGA ground-motion relations, Earthquake Spectra 24(1), 45-66.
Abrahamson, N.A., W.J. Silva, and R. Kamai (2014). Summary of the ASK14 Ground Motion Relation for Active Crustal Regions, Earthquake Spectra 30(3), 1025-1055.
Akkar, S. and J.J. Bommer (2010). Empirical equations for the prediction of PGA, PGV and spectral accelerations in Europe, the Mediterranean region and the Middle East, Seis. Res. Lett. 81(2), 195- 206.
Akkar, S., M.A. Sandikkaya, and J.J. Bommer (2014). Empirical ground-motion models for point and extended-source crustal earathquake scenarios in Europe and the Middle East, Bull. Earthquake Eng. 12, 359-387.
Allen, R.M. (2006). Probabilistic Warning Times for Earthquake Ground Shaking in the San Francisco Bay Area, Seis. Res. Lett. 77(3), 371-376.
Allen, T.I., D.J. Wald, A.J. Hotovec, K.W. Lin, P.S. Earle, and K.D. Marano (2008). An Atlas of ShakeMaps for selected global earthquakes, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1236, 35pp.
Allen, T.I., D.J. Wald, P.S. Earle, K.D. Marano, A.J. Hotovec, K.W. Lin, and M.J. Hearne (2009a). An Atlas of ShakeMaps and population exposure catalog for earthquake loss modeling, Bull. Earthquake Eng. 7, 701-718.
Allen, T. and D.J. Wald (2009b). On the use of high-resolution topographic data as a proxy for seismic site conditions (VS30), Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 99(2A), 935-943.
Allen, T.I., K.D. Marano, P.S. Earle, and D.J. Wald (2009c). PAGER-CAT: a composite earthquake catalogue for calibrating global fatality models, Seis. Res. Lett. 80(1), 57-62. DOI: 10.1785/gssrl.80.1.57.
Allen, T.I., D.J. Wald, and C.B. Worden (2012). Intensity attenuation for active crustal regions, J. Seismol. 16, 409-433.
Anderson, J.G. (2013). Surface Motions on Near-Distance Rock Sites in the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake, Earthquake Spectra 29(S1), S23-S35
Atkinson, G.M. (2008). Ground-motion prediction equations for eastern North America from a referenced empirical approach: Implications for epistemic uncertainty, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 98(3), 1304-1318.
Atkinson, G.M. (2010). Ground-motion prediction equations for Hawaii from a referenced empirical approach, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 100(2), 751-761.
Atkinson, G.M. and D.M. Boore (2003). Empirical ground-motion relations for subduction zone earthquakes and their application to Cascadia and other regions, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 93(4), 1703- 1729.
Atkinson, G.M. and D.M. Boore (2006). Earthquake ground-motion prediction equations for Eastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 96(6), 2181-2205.
Atkinson, G.M. and D.M. Boore (2008). Erratum: Empirical ground-motion relations for subduction zone earthquakes and their application to Cascadia and other regions, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 98(5), 2567-2569.
Atkinson, G.M. and D.M. Boore (2011). Modifications to existing ground-motion prediction equations in light of new data, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 101(3), 1121-1135.
Atkinson, G.M. and S.I. Kaka (2007). Relationships between Felt Intensity and Instrumental Ground Motion in the Central United States and California, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 97, 497-510.
Atkinson, G.M. and M. Macias (2009). Predicted ground motions for great interface earthquakes in the Cascadia subduction zone, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 99(3), 1552-1578.
Atkinson, G.M. and D.J. Wald (2007). “Did You Feel It?” Intensity Data: A surprisingly good measure of earthquake ground motion, Seis. Res. Lett. 78, 362-368.
Atkinson, G.M. and D.M. Boore (2003). Empirical ground-motion relations for subduction regions and their application to Cascadia and other regions, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am 93, 1703-1729.
Atkinson, G.M. and D. M. Boore (1997). Some comparisons between Recent ground-motion relations, Seis. Res. Lett. 68, 24-40.
Atkinson, G.M. and D.M. Boore (1995). Ground motion relations for eastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 85, 17-30.
Applied Technology Council (2002). ATC-54: Guidelines for using strong-motion data and ShakeMaps in Post-Earthquake Response, Redwood City, California, 224pp.
Boatwright, J., H. Bundock, J. Luetgert, L. Seekins, L. Gee, and P. Lombard (2003). The dependence of sPGA and PGV on distance and magnitude inferred from Northern California ShakeMap data, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 93(5), 2043-2055.
Boatwright, J., K. Thywissen, and L. Seekins (2001). Correlation of ground-motion and intensity for the January 17, 1994, Northridge, California earthquake, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 91, 739-752.
Beyer, K. and J. Bommer (2006). Relationships between Median Values and between Aleatory Variabilities for Different Definitions of the Horizontal Component of Motion, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 96(4A), 1512-1522.
Biasi, G., M.S. Mohammed, and D.H. Sanders (2016). Earthquake Damage Estimations: ShakeCast Case Study on Nevada Bridges, Earthquake Spectra, submitted.
Bommer, J.J. and S. Akkar (2012). Consistent source-to-site distance metrics in ground-motion prediction equations and seismic source models for PSHA, Earthquake Spectra 28, 1-15.
Boore, D.M. and G.M. Atkinson (2008). Ground-Motion Prediction Equations for the Average Horizontal Component of PGA, PGV, and 5%-Damped PSA at Spectral Periods between 0.01 s and 10.0 s, Earthquake Spectra 24(1), 99-138.
Boore, D.M., J.F. Gibbs, W.B. Joyner, J.C. Tinsley, and D.J. Ponti (2003). Estimated Ground Motion From the 1994 Northridge, California, Earthquake at the Site of the Interstate 10 and La Cienega Boulevard Bridge Collapse, West Los Angeles, California, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 93, 2737-2751.
Boore, D.M., W.B. Joyner, and T.E. Fumal (1997). Equations for Estimating Horizontal Response Spectra and Peak Accelerations from Western North American Earthquakes: A Summary of Recent Work, Seis. Res. Lett. 68, 128-153.
Boore, D.M., W.B. Joyner, and T.E. Fumal (1994). Estimation of response spectra and peak accelerations from Western North America Earthquakes: An Interim Report, Part 2, U. S. Geological Survey Open- File Report 94-127, 40pp.
Boore, D.M., W.B. Joyner, and T.E. Fumal (1997). Equations for estimating horizontal response spectral and peak acceleration from western North American earthquakes: A summary of recent work, Seis. Res. Lett. 68, 128-153.
Boore, D.M. and W.B. Joyner (1991). Estimation of ground motion at deep-soil sites in eastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 81(6), 2167-2185.
Boore, D.M. (2010). Orientation-Independent, Nongeometric-Mean Measures of Seismic Intensity from Two Horizontal Components of Motion, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 100(4), 1830–1835.
Borcherdt, R.D. (1994). Estimates of site-dependent response spectra for design (methodology and justification), Earthquake Spectra 10, 617-654.
Brackman, T. (2005). ShakeMap Implementation for the Upper Mississippi Embayment, Thesis, University of Memphis, Department of Earth Sciences.
Campbell, K.W. (2002). Prediction of strong ground motion using the hybrid empirical method: example application to eastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., submitted.
Campbell, K.W. (1997). Empirical near-source attenuation relationships for horizontal and vertical components of peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and pseudoabsolute acceleration response spectra, Seis. Res. Lett. 68, 154-179.
Campbell, K.W. (2003). Prediction of strong ground motion using the hybrid empirical method and its use in the development of ground-motion (attenuation) relations in eastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 93(3), 1012-1033.
Campbell, K.W. and Y. Bozorgnia (2007). Campbell-Bozorgnia NGA ground motion relations for the geometric mean horizontal component of peak and spectral ground motion parameters, PEER Report No. 2007/02, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley.
Campbell, K.W., and Y. Bozorgnia (2008). NGA ground motion model for the geometric mean horizontal component of PGA, PGV, PGD and 5% damped linear elastic response spectra for periods ranging from 0:01 to 10 s., Earthquake Spectra 24(1), 139-171.
Caprio, M., B. Tarigan, C.B. Worden, D.J. Wald, and S. Wiemer (2015). Ground Motion to Intensity Conversion Equations (GMICEs): A Global Relationship and Evaluation of Regional Dependency, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 105(3).
Celsi, R., M. Wolfinbarger, and D.J. Wald (2005). The Effects of Magnitude Anchoring, Earthquake Attenuation Estimation, Measure Complexity, Hubris, and Experience Inflation on Individuals’ Perceptions of Felt Earthquake Experience and Perceptions of Earthquake Risk, Earthquake Spectra 21(4), 987-1008.
Chiou, B.S.J. and R.R. Youngs (2008a). An NGA model for the average horizontal component of peak ground motion and response spectra, Earthquake Spectra 24(1), 173-215.
Chiou, B.S.J. and R.R. Youngs (2008b). Chiou and Youngs PEER-NGA empirical ground motion model for the average horizontal component of peak acceleration, peak velocity, and pseudo-spectral acceleration for spectral periods of 0.01 to 10 seconds, Final Report submitted to PEER.
Choi, Y. and J.P. Stewart (2005). Nonlinear Site Amplification as Function of 30 m Shear Wave Velocity, Earthquake Spectra 21(1), 1-30.
Converse, A. and A.G. Brady (1992). BAP basic strong-motion accelerogram processing software version 1.0, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-296.
Convertito, V., M. Caccavale, R. De Matteis, A. Emolo, D.J. Wald, and A. Zollo (2011). Fault extent estimation for near-real time ground shaking map computation purposes, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 102(2), 661-679.
Cua, G. and D.J. Wald (2008). Calibrating PAGER (“Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response”) ground shaking and human impact estimation using worldwide earthquake datasets: collaborative research with USGS and the Swiss Seismological Service, NEHRP Final Report (Award number: 06HQGR0062).
Cua, G., D.J. Wald, T.I. Allen, D. Garcia, C.B. Worden, M. Gerstenberger, K. Lin, and K. Marano (2010). “Best Practices” for Using Macroseismic Intensity and Ground Motion to Intensity Conversion Equations for Hazard and Loss Models, GEM Technical Report 2010-4, Report Series, 69 pp., http://www.globalquakemodel.org/node/747.
Dai, F.C., C. Xu, X. Yao, L. Xu, X.B. Tu, and Q.M. Gong (2010). Spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, China, J. Asian Earth Sci. 40, 883-895.
Dengler, L.A. and J.W. Dewey (1998). An Intensity Survey of Households Affected by the Northridge, California, Earthquake of 17 January 1994, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 88(2), 441-462.
Dewey, J.W., B.G. Reagor, L. Dengler, and K. Moley (1995). Intensity distribution and isoseismal maps for the Northridge, California, earthquake of January 17, 1994, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-92, 35pp.
Dewey, J., D.J. Wald, and L. Dengler (2000). Relating conventional USGS Modified Mercalli Intensities to intensities assigned with data collected via the Internet Seis. Res. Lett. 71, 264.
Ebel, J. and D.J. Wald (2003). Bayesian Estimations of Peak Ground Acceleration and 5% Damped Spectral Acceleration from Modified Mercalli Intensity Data, Earthquake Spectra 19(3), 511-529.
Eguchi, R.T., J.D. Goltz, H.A. Seligson, P.J. Flores, N.C. Blais, T.H. Heaton, and E. Bortugno (1997). The Early Post-Earthquake Damage Assessment Tool (EPEDAT), Earthquake Spectra 13(4), 815-832.
EPRI (1991). Standardization of cumulative absolute velocity, EPRI TR100082 (Tier 1), Palo Alto, California, Electric Power Research Institute, prepared by Yankee Atomic Electric Company.
EPRI (2003). CEUS Ground Motion Project: Model Development and Results, EPRI Report 1008910, Palo Alto, CA, 105pp.
Erdik, M., K. Sesetyan, M.B. Demircioglu, C. Zulfikar, U. Hancılar, C. Tuzun, and E. Harmandar (2014). Rapid earthquake loss assessment after damaging earthquakes, in A. Ansal (ed.), Perspectives on European Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering 34. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07118-3_2.
Erdik, M., K. Sesetyan, M.B. Demircioglu, U. Hancılar, and C. Zulfikar (2011). Rapid earthquake loss assessment after damaging earthquakes Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 31, 247–266.
Faenza, L. and A. Michilini (2010). Regression analysis of MCS intensity and ground motion parameters in Italy and its application in ShakeMap, Geophys. J. Int. 180, 1138–1152.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (2006). HAZUS-MH MR2 Technical Manual: Washington, D.C., Federal Emergency Management Agency. http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/hazus/hz_manuals.shtm.
Field, E.H. (2000). A modified ground-motion attenuation relationship for southern California that accounts for detailed site classification and a basin-depth effect, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 90, S209-S221.
Franco, G. (2015). Earthquake Mitigation Strategies Through Insurance, Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-36197-5_401-1.
Frankel, A.D., M.D. Petersen, C.S. Mueller, K.M. Haller, R.L. Wheeler, E.V. Leyendecker, R.L. Wesson, S.C. Harmsen, C.H. Cramer, D.M. Perkins, and K.S. Rukstales (2002). Documentation for the 2002 Update of the National Seismic Hazard Maps U.S., U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report: 02-420. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/ofr-02-420/OFR-02-420.pdf.
Garcia, D., S.K. Singh, M. Herraiz, M. Ordaz, and J.F. Pacheco (2005). Inslab earthquakes of central Mexico: Peak ground-motion parameters and response spectra, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am 95(6), 2272-2282.
Garcia, D., R.T. Mah, K.L. Johnson, M.G. Hearne, K.D. Marano, K.W. Lin, D.J. Wald, C.B. Worden, and E. So (2012a). ShakeMap Atlas 2.0: An Improved Suite of Recent Historical Earthquake ShakeMaps for Global Hazard Analyses and Loss Models, Proc. 15th World Conf. on Eq. Eng., Lisbon, 10pp.
Garcia, D., D.J. Wald, and M.G. Hearne (2012b). A Global Earthquake Discrimination Scheme to Optimize Ground-Motion Prediction Equation Selection, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 102, 185-203.
Godt, J., B. Wener, K. Verdin, D.J. Wald, P. Earle, E. Harp, and R. Jibson (2008). Rapid assessment of earthquake-induced landsliding, Proc. of the 1st World Landslide Forum, Tokyo, Japan, Parallel Sessions Volume, International Program on Landslides.
Gomberg, J. and A. Jakobitz (2013). A collaborative user-producer assessment of earthquake-response products, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013–1103, 13pp. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1103/.
Grünthal, G., ed. (1998). European Macroseismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98), Cahiers du Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie 15, 101pp.
Hauksson, E., L.M. Jones, and K. Hutton (2002). The 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine, California, Earthquake Sequence: Complex Conjugate Strike-Slip Faulting, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 92(4), 1154–1170.
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) (2012). Exercise Caribe Wave/Lantex 13. A Caribbean Tsunami Warning Exercise, 20 March 2013. Volume 1: Participant Handbook. IOC Technical Series No. 101. Paris, UNESCO, 2012.
Jaiswal, K.S. and D.J. Wald (2010). An Empirical Model for Global Earthquake Fatality Estimation, Earthquake Spectra 26(4), 1017-1037.
Jaiswal, K.S. and D.J. Wald (2012). Estimating Economic Loss from Earthquakes Using an Empirical Approach, Earthquake Spectra 29(1), 309-324.
Japan Meteorological Agency (1996). Note on the JMA seismic intensity, JMA report 1996, Gyosei (in Japanese).
Jones, L. and M. Benthien (2011). Preparing for a “Big One”—The great southern California ShakeOut, Earthquake Spectra 27, 575–595.
Joyner, W.B. and D.M. Boore (1988). Measurement, characterization, and prediction of strong ground-motions, in Proc. Conf. on Earthq. Eng. & Soil Dyn. II, Am. Soc. Civil Eng., Park City, Utah, 43-102.
Joyner, W.B. and D.M. Boore (1981). Peak horizontal accelerations and velocity from strong-motion records including records from the 1979 Imperial Valley, California, earthquake, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 71, 2011-2038.
Kaka, S.I. and G.M. Atkinson (2004). Relationships between instrumental intensity and ground motion parameters in eastern North America, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 94, 1728-1736.
Kaka, S.I. and G.M. Atkinson (2005). Empirical ground-motion relations for ShakeMap applications in southeastern Canada & the northeastern United States, Seis. Res. Lett. 76(2), 274-282.
Kanamori, H., P. Maechling, and E. Hauksson (1999). Continuous Monitoring of Ground-Motion Parameters, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 89(1), 311-316.
Kanno, T., A. Narita, N. Morikawa, H. Fujiwara, and Y. Fukushima (2006). A new attenuation relation for strong ground motion in Japan based on recorded data, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am 96(3), 879-897.
Knudsen, K.L., and J.D.J. Bott (2011). Geologic and geomorphic evaluation of liquefaction case histories- toward rapid hazard mapping, Seis. Res. Lett. 82(2), 334-335.
Lin, K.W. and D.J. Wald (2008). ShakeCast Manual, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2008-1158, 90 pp.
Lin, K.W., D.J. Wald, C.B. Worden, and A.F. Shakal (2005). Quantifying CISN ShakeMap Uncertainty, Proc. of the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program User’s Workshop, Los Angeles, 37- 49.
Lin, K.W. and D.J. Wald (2012). Developing Statistical Fragility Analysis Framework for the USGS ShakeCast System for Rapid Post-Earthquake Assessment, Proc. 15th World Conf. on Eq. Eng., Lisbon, 10pp.
Marano, K.D., D.J. Wald, and T.I. Allen (2009). Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: a quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses. Natural Hazards 52, 319-328.
Mori, J., H. Kanamori, J. Davis, E. Hauksson, R. Clayton, T. Heaton, L. Jones, and A. Shakal (1998). Major improvements in progress for southern California earthquake monitoring, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 79, 217-221.
Matsuoka, M., K. Wakamatsu, M. Hashimoto, S. Senna, and S. Midorikawa (2015). Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential for Large Areas Based on Geomorphologic Classification, Earthquake Spectra, in press.
Musson, R.M.W., G. Grunthal, and M. Stucchi (2010). The comparison of macroseismic intensity scales, Journal of Seismology 14, 413-428.
National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) (1997). Earthquake Loss Estimation Methodology: HAZUS97 Technical Manual, Report prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
NIBS (1999), HAZUS Technical Manual, SR2 edition, Vols. I, II, and III, prepared by the National Institute of Building Sciences for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
National Research Council (NRC) (2006). Improved Seismic Monitoring - Improved Decision-Making: Assessing the Value of Reduced Uncertainty, Couverture Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics, Committee on the Economic Benefits of Improved Seismic Monitoring, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council National Academies Press 2006, 196pp. DOI: 10.17226/11327.
Newmark, N.M. and W.J. Hall (1982). Earthquake spectra and design, Geotechnique 25, no. 2, 139-160.
Newmark, N.M. and W.J. Hall (1982). Earthquake Spectra and Design, Engineering Monographs on Earthquake Criteria, Structural Design, and Strong Motion Records, Vol. 3, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Nowicki, M.A., D.J. Wald, M.W. Hamburger, M. Hearne, and E.M. Thompson (2014). Development of a Globally Applicable Model for Near Real-Time Prediction of Seismically Induced Landslides, Engineering Geology, submitted.
Pankow, K.L and J.C. Pechmann (2003). Addedum to SEA99: A new PGV and revised PGA and pseudovelocity predictive relationship for extensional tectonic regimes, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 364.
Petersen, M.D., M.P. Moschetti, P.M. Powers, C.S. Mueller, K.M. Haller, A.D. Frankel, Y. Zeng, S. Rezaeian, S.C. Harmsen, O.S. Boyd, N. Field, R. Chen, K.S. Rukstales, N. Luco, R.L. Wheeler, R.A. Williams, and A.H. Olsen (2014). Documentation for the 2014 update of the United States national seismic hazard maps, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1091, 243pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20141091.
Pomonis, A. and E. So (2011). Guidelines for the Collection of Consequence Data, Global Earthquake Consequences Database Global Component Project, 71pp. http://www.nexus.globalquakemodel.org/gemecd/.
Powers, M., B. Chiou, N. Abrahamson, Y. Bozorgnia, T. Shantz, and C. Roblee (2008). An Overview of the NGA Project, Earthquake Spectra 24(1), 3-21.
Rowshandel, B. (2010). Directivity Correction for the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) Relations, Earthquake Spectra 26(2), 525–559.
Scrivner, C.W., C.B. Worden, and D.J. Wald (2000). Use of TriNet ShakeMap to Manage Earthquake Risk, Proc. of the Sixth International Conference on Seismic Zonation, Palm Springs.
Seyhan, E. and J.P. Stewart (2014). Semi-Empirical Nonlinear Site Amplification from NGA-West2 Data and Simulations, Earthquake Spectra 30(3), 1241-1256.
Shakal, A., C. Peterson, and V. Grazier (1998). Near-real-time strong motion data recovery and automated processing for post-earthquake utilization, Proc. 6th Nat’l Conf. on Eq. Eng., Seattle.
Shimuzu, Y. and F. Yamasaki (1998). Real-time City Gas Network Damage Estimation System-SIGNAL, Proc. 11th European Conf. on Eq. Eng., A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Smith, W.H.F. and P. Wessel (1990). Gridding with continuous curvature splines in tension, Geophysics 55, 293-305.
So, E. (2014). Introduction to the GEM Earthquake Consequences Database (GEMECD), GEM Technical Report 1.0.0, 158 pp., GEM Foundation, Pavia, Italy. DOI: 10.13117/GEM.VULN-MOD.TR2014.14. Available online.
Sokolov, V.Y. and Y.K. Chernov (1998). On the correlation of Seismic Intensity with Fourier Amplitude Spectra, Earthquake Spectra (14), 679-694.
Spudich, P., W.B. Joyner, A.G. Lindh, D.M. Boore, B.M. Margaris, and J.B. Fletcher (1999). SEA99 - A revised ground-motion prediction relation for use in extensional tectonic regimes, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 89, 1156-1170.
Thompson, E.M. and D.J. Wald (2012). Developing Vs30 Site-Condition Maps By Combining Observations With Geologic And Topographic Constraints, Proc. 15th World Conf. on Eq. Eng., Lisbon, 9 pp.
Thompson, E.M., D.J. Wald, and C.B. Worden (2014). A VS30 map for California with geologic and topographic constraints, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 104(5), 2313-2321.
Thompson, E.M., D.J. Wald, C.B. Worden, N. Field, N. Luco, M. D. Peterson, P. M. Powers, and B. Rowshandel (2016). ShakeMap Scenario Strategy, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, in progress.
Turner, L. (2014). Performance of the Caltrans ShakeCast System in the 2014 Napa M6.0 Earthquake”, Caltrans Report, Division of Research, Innovation, and System Information, September 2014, 14pp.
Turner, L., D.J. Wald, and K.W. Lin (2010). ShakeCast - Developing a Tool for Rapid Post-Earthquake Response, Final Report CA09-0734, 325pp.
USGS (1999). An assessment of Seismic Monitoring in the United States: Requirements for an Advance National Seismic System, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1188.
Verros, S., M. Ganesh, M. Hearne, C.B. Worden, and D.J. Wald (2016). Computing Spatial Correlation of Ground Motion Intensities for ShakeMap, manuscript in prep.
Wald, D.J., T.H. Heaton, and K.W. Hudnut (1996). The Slip History of the 1994 Northridge, California, Earthquake Determined from Strong-Motion, Teleseismic, GPS, and Leveling Data, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 86(1B), S49-S70.
Wald, D.J., T.H. Heaton, H. Kanamori, P. Maechling, and V. Quitoriano (1997). Research and Development of TriNet “Shake” Maps, EOS 78(46), F45.
Wald, D.J. (1999). Gathering of Earthquake Shaking and Damage Information in California, Proc. 3rd US-JAPAN High Level Policy Forum, Yokohama, Japan.
Wald, D.J., V. Quitoriano, T.H. Heaton, H. Kanamori, C.W. Scrivner, and C.B. Worden (1999a). TriNet “ShakeMaps”: Rapid Generation of Peak Ground-motion and Intensity Maps for Earthquakes in Southern California, Earthquake Spectra 15(3), 537-556.
Wald, D.J., V. Quitoriano, T.H. Heaton, and H. Kanamori (1999b). Relationships between peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and modified Mercalli intensity in California, Earthquake Spectra 15, 557-564.
Wald, D.J., V. Quitoriano, L. Dengler, and J.W. Dewey (1999c). Utilization of the Internet for Rapid Community Intensity Maps, Seis. Res. Letters 70, 680-697.
Wald, D.J., L. Wald, J. Goltz, C.B. Worden, and C.W. Scrivner (2000). “ShakeMaps”: Instant Maps of Earthquake Shaking, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 103-00.
Wald, D.J. and J. Goltz (2001). ShakeMap: A new Tool for Emergency Management and Public Information, Proc. Los Angeles/Yokohama Disaster Prevention Workshop, Yokohama, Japan, November, 2001.
Wald, D.J., L. Wald, J. Dewey, V. Quitoriano, and E. Adams (2001). Did You Feel It? Community-Made Earthquake Shaking Maps, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 030-01.
Wald, D.J., L. Wald, C.B. Worden, and J. Goltz (2003). ShakeMap: A Tool for Earthquake Response, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 087-03.
Wald, D.J., P.A. Naecker, C. Roblee, and L. Turner (2003). Development of a ShakeMap-based, earthquake response system within Caltrans, in Advancing Mitigation Technologies and Disaster Response for Lifeline Systems, J. Beavers, ed., Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, Monograph No. 25, August 2003, ASCE.
Wald, D.J., C.B. Worden, K.W. Lin, and K. Pankow (2005). ShakeMap manual: technical manual, user’s guide, and software guide, U. S. Geological Survey, Techniques and Methods 12-A1, 132 pp. http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2005/12A01/
Wald, D.J., P.S. Earle, K.W. Lin, V. Quitoriano, and C.B. Worden (2006a). Challenges in Rapid Ground Motion Estimation for the Prompt Assessment of Global Urban Earthquakes, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Tokyo, 81, 273-282.
Wald, D.J. and T.I. Allen (2007). Topographic slope as a proxy for seismic site conditions and amplification, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 97(5), 1379-1395.
Wald, D.J., K.W. Lin, and V. Quitoriano (2008). Quantifying and Qualifying USGS ShakeMap Uncertainty, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2008-1238, 26pp.
Wald, D.J., P.S. Earle, T.I. Allen, K.S. Jaiswal, K.A. Porter, and M.J. Hearne (2008). Development of the U.S. Geological Survey’s PAGER system (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response), in World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 14th, Beijing, China, October 2008, Proc. World Conf. on Eq. Eng. Beijing, China, Paper No. 10-0008.
Wald, D.J., L. McWhirter, E. Thompson, and A. Hering (2011a). A New Strategy for Developing Vs30 Maps, Proc. of the 4th International Effects of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion Symp., Santa Barbara, 12pp.
Wald, D.J., K.S. Jaiswal, K.D. Marano, and D. Bausch (2011b). An Earthquake Impact Scale: Natural Hazards Review, posted ahead of print. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000040.
Wald, D.J., V. Quitoriano, C.B. Worden, M. Hopper, and J.W. Dewey (2011c). USGS “Did You Feel It?” internet-based macroseismic intensity maps. Annals of Geophysics 54(6), 688-709.
Wald, D.J. and G. Franco (2016). Applications of Near-Real time, Post-earthquake Financial Decision-Making, Proc. 16th World Conf. on Eq. Eng., Santiago, Chile.
Wessel, P., and W.H.F. Smith (1995). New Version of the Generic Mapping Tools Released, EOS Trans., AGU, 76, 329.
Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) (2003). Earthquake Probabilities in the San Francisco Bay Region: 2003 to 2031, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-214.
Wells, D.L. and K.J. Coppersmith (1994). New Empirical Relationships among Magnitude, Rupture Length, Rupture Width, Rupture Area, and Surface Displacement, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 84(4), 974-1002.
Wills, C.J., M.D. Petersen, W.A. Bryant, M.S. Reichle, G.J. Saucedo, S.S. Tan, G.C. Taylor, and J.A. Treiman (2000). A site-conditions map for California based on geology and shear wave velocity, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 90, S187-S208.
Wills, C.J. and K.B. Clahan (2006). Developing a map of geologically defined site- condition categories for California, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 96, 1483-1501.
Wills, C.J. and C. Gutierrez (2008). Investigation of geographic rules for im- proving site-conditions mapping, Calif. Geo. Sur. Final Tech. Rept., 20 pp. (Award No. 07HQGR0061).
Wood, H.O. and F. Neumann (1931). Modified Mercalli intensity scale of 1931, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 21, 277-283.
Worden, C.B., D.J. Wald, T.I. Allen, K.W. Lin, D. Garcia, and G. Cua (2010). A revised ground-motion and intensity interpolation scheme for ShakeMap, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 100(6), 3083-3096.
(See Worden et al, 2012, the actual publication date. Software was written prior to publication.)
Worden, C.B., M.C. Gerstenberger, D.A. Rhoades, D.J. and Wald (2012). Probabilistic relationships between ground-motion parameters and Modified Mercalli intensity in California Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 102(1), 204-221. DOI: 10.1785/0120110156.
Worden, C.B., D.J. Wald, and E.M. Thompson (2015). Development of an Open-Source Hybrid Global Vs30 Model, SSA Annual Meeting, Pasadena, CA. Seis. Res. Lett. 86(2B), 713. https://github.com/cbworden/earthquake-global_vs30.
C.B. Worden, M. Hearne, D.J. Wald, and M. Pagani (2016). Complimentary Components of OpenQuake and ShakeMap, Proc. 16th World Conf. on Eq. Eng., Santiago.
Worden, C.B. and D.J. Wald (2016). ShakeMap Manual Online: technical manual, user’s guide, and software guide, U. S. Geological Survey. usgs.github.io/shakemap. DOI: 10.5066/F7D21VPQ.
Yamakawa, K. (1998). The Prime Minister and the earthquake: Emergency Management Leadership of Prime Minister Marayama on the occasion of the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake disaster, Kansai Univ. Rev. Law and Politics 19, 13-55.
Wu, Y.M., W.H.K. Lee, C.C. Chen, T.C. Shin, T.L. Teng, and Y.B. Tsai (2000). Performance of the Taiwain Rapid Earthquake Information Release System (RTD) during the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake, Seis. Res. Lett. 71, 338-343.
Wu, Y.M., T.C. Shin, and C.H. Chang (2001). Near real-time mapping of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity following a strong earthquake, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 91, 1218-1228.
Wu, Y.M., T.L. Teng, T.C. Shin, and N.C. Hsiao (2003). Relationship between peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and Intensity in Taiwan, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 93, 386-396.
Yeats, R. (2004). Living with Earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest A Survivor’s Guide, Second Edition, 400 pp. ISBN 978-0-87071-024-7.
Yong, A., S.E. Hough, J. Iwahashi, and A. Braverman (2012). A Terrain-Based Site-Conditions Map of California with Implications for the Contiguous United States, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 102, 114-128.
Yong, A., A. Martin, K. Stokoe, and J. Diehl (2013). ARRA-funded VS30 measurements using multi- technique approach at California and central-eastern United States strong motion stations, U.S. Geological Survey Open- File Report 2013-1102.
Yong, A., E.M. Thompson, D.J. Wald, K.L. Knudsen, J.K. Odum, W.J. Stephenson, and S. Haefner (2015). A Compilation of VS30 in the United States, SSA Annual Meeting, Pasadena, CA, Seis. Res. Lett. 86(2B), 713.
Youngs, R.R., S.J. Chiou, W.J. Silva, and J.R. Humphrey (1997). Strong ground-motion relationships for subduction zones, Seis. Res. Lett. 68(1), 58-73.
Zhao, J.X. (2010). Geometric spreading functions and modeling of volcanic zones for strong-motion attenuation models derived from records in Japan, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 100(2), 712-732.
Zhao, J.X., J. Zhang, A. Asano, Y. Ohno, T. Oouchi, T. Takahashi, H. Ogawa, K. Irikura, H.K. Thio, P.G. Somerville, Y. Fukushima, and Y. Fukushima (2006). Attenuation relations of strong ground motion in Japan using site classification based on predominant period, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 96(3), 898-913.
Zhu, J., L.G. Baise, E.M. Thompson, D.J. Wald, and K.L. Knudsen (2014). A Geospatial Liquefaction Model for Rapid Response and Loss Estimation, Earthquake Spectra, in press.